What Do Bettas Need in Their Tank?

Having a pet is almost always an attractive option for many people. The exclamations of ‘aww’ when you see your pet makes the dopamine level shoot up in your brain. They give you a sense of love and companionship.

Well, many pets need a lot of attention, for example, a dog and there are others like fishes who just need your attention once in a while. There are so many kinds of fishes that are often seen in the fish tank. the more colorful and vibrant a fish tank is the more soothing and brilliant it makes the room look. Multiple genetic changes are done to fishes, the latest being glow in the dark. These fishes which can glow in the dark have a fluorophore expressing gene activated. These just make the fish look attractive in a fish tank and have no other utility. This is actually thought to be on the cruel side of the use of an invention. People usually look for naturally vibrant colored fishes like goldfish or betta fish who swim around beautifully and elegantly in a fish tank.

What is a betta fish?What Do Bettas Need in Their Tank?

This vibrant fish was first seen in South East Asia. They made their appearance in the paddy fields as usually, they had a lot of stagnant water. They were also seen in the flood plains that were warm around the region and in drainage ditches. Due to their choice of habitat, they became accustomed to the drought and flood conditions. They became what we know as a labyrinth fish. All labyrinth fishes which of course include betta fish can breathe both oxygen which is dissolved in water and the oxygen that is present in the air. So, the betta fish can survive without water for some time by breathing in oxygen from the air. They’re very vibrant and colorful. They are usually categorized under the fighting fish category. They usually are found to live alone as bachelors.

Betta fish due to its adaptation can live in stagnant and oxygen-deprived waters and survive. They will obviously do better with more oxygen but less oxygen is not an immediate problem for them. In a water temperature of about 76-82 degrees, Fahrenheit and a regular change of water will keep your betta happy.

How did the name come to be?

Betta comes from a fighting clan names ‘Bettah. ‘Bettah’ was a clan of warriors from an ancient time. The fish fell under the category of fighting fishes and therefore when this became popular during the mid-1800s they named the fish after the ancient clan of warriors. The sport of the fighting fishes gained a lot of fame and popularity. The king if Thailand started taxing and regulating it due to its popularity. The fish who is the bravest is more cheered and respected than the fish which emerges victorious. The sport was bet on and enjoyed by a lot of people.

The pointers to keep in mind as you construct your betta fish a tank

What Do Bettas Need in Their Tank?

Betta fishes are not schooling fishes. They do not go around in a huge group rather they like to be alone. When two fishes are put in the same tank they will absolutely fight. The pointers to keep in mind while you create the best betta fish tank is that:

It should not be a bowl:

betta fishes like everyone else enjoy their freedom. Already the restriction of the tank walls is freedom curbing enough your decorations have to be mindful of the space occupation. You can decorate the fish tank appropriately and make sure that there are no sharp decorations. The fins of a betta fish are delicate and sharp decorations may just tear them.

Give them enough space to hide:

the betta fish likes places to hide in their tanks as they would have in their natural environment. You can put in some caves or corals that help them hide in the tank and let them enjoy the feeling. They feel safe in such tanks.

The water pointers to look out for:

the water should be a little acidic and warm. If you make your betta fish stay in cold water you may just be the one suppressing your betta fish’s immune system.

Changing the water:

you cannot change the entire water of the tank. this makes the fish feel not adjusted to the clean water’s temperature and pH. So, we take out one-third of the water from the fish tank and then replace that with new clean water. This makes the transition easier. We have to do it every three to four days.

  • The cleaning of the decorations:

  • the cleaning of the decorations cannot be done with soap or detergent as that harms the fish. You can clean the decorations with warm water and that should do just fine. A turkey baster to remove small debris from the floor of the aquarium should just do fine to maintain the bacteria and ammonia level.

Chlorine water is harmful:

the tap water often contains too much chlorine. If this is the case you would have to dechlorinate the water.

What is in for dinner time?

What Do Bettas Need in Their Tank?

Betta fish according to many people can live off just nibbling at some plant roots which is not true. Betta fish are carnivore fishes. They have to be fed insect and insect larvae. There are different kinds of fish food available in the market where you will get pelted or flaked food for fish. Here you can find your fish’s food with the appropriate constituents in their food. Like everybody when overfed goes through the terrible conditions of obesity so does the betta fish. overfeeding your fish can cause it to become obese and sick.

Sum it up

Betta fish is kind of a territorial fish and usually does not like other betta fishes around it. Living in a small tank might bore them sometimes. You can add ‘friends’ like ghost shrimps, snails and a few other species of fishes to keep them company.


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What Is the Best Bedding to Use for Chinchillas?

What is the Best Bedding to Use For Chinchillas?

Chinchilla is one of the most favourite pets for many people around the world. This pet is more active and bigger than rabbits. People who have chinchillas in their home must make certain that they keep their pet animals in the cold and humid temperature because these animals are susceptible to heatstroke. They must choose and invest in the best Chinchilla bedding for their pet. This is because the chinchilla has the nature to chew everything they anticipate. Chinchillas have sensitive feet and soft coats. They require the first-class bedding so as to bounce around with their sensitive and soft feet.

Explore different bedding options

There are loads of chinchilla bedding options available on the market at this time. You can focus on unbiased reviews of these bedding options one after another and make a good decision about how to successfully choose and buy the appropriate bedding. You can contact and discuss with experts in the chinchilla bedding options at any time you like to compare and narrow down a list of top bedding options.

As a pet owner with an objective to provide the best suitable bedding for your chinchilla, you have to spend enough time to research the latest collection of chinchilla bedding options. You can read unbiased reviews of well-known brands of chinchilla bedding items and enhance your proficiency to choose and buy the suitable bed for your chinchilla. The right size of the fabric in the chinchilla bedding is very important to keep it comfortable at all times. If the size of the bed is too large, then this bed hurts the sensitive skin of the chinchilla and makes him anxious and confused. The large bed size hinders daily activities of chinchilla.

Buy the best quality bedding

Buy the best quality bedding

The overall quality of the material used to make the chinchilla bedding is an important thing to consider while choosing the bedding for your beloved pet animal. This is worthwhile to pick and buy the best Chinchilla bedding made of the soft texture material without any unpleasant smell. The liquid absorbency rate is another important factor to consider at any time you choose bedding for your chinchilla. You can choose and buy the chinchilla bedding with material which can absorb and maintain the maximum liquid to match the most expected level of humidity.

Experienced pet owners keep the cage of their chinchilla clean at all times. They cover the bedding in the best possible way to get rid of smell of pet waste. They use and recommend the aspen based fiber which gives off a pleasant odour devoid of any artificial additive. Chinchillas are very conscious about how to choose and invest in the chinchilla bedding every time they like to take care of their pet. They prefer the bedding material which goes well with different environments and foster various climates. They understand that a substance with the maximum versatility makes the bedding for chinchilla good in different aspects. Chinchillasey avoid bedding options including artificial coloring, toxic substances and other things which affect the safety and health of their pet chinchilla.

Take note of important things

Take note of important things


You may do not have proficiency in the chinchilla bedding shopping at this time. Once you have decided to be successful in your approach for chinchilla bedding shopping, you require considering the following things in detail.

  • Padding
  • Cleanliness
  • Softness
  • Absorbency
  • Material
  • Cost
  • Quality
  • Durability

The best Chinchilla bedding has two main functions. The first function is protecting chinchilla feet. The second function is to keep the habitat of chinchilla clean. Delicate feet of chinchilla require the best and soft padding in the rough bottom of its cage. This padding shields the feet of chinchilla from rough nature of cage. As a messy creature, chinchilla produces different wastes on the bedding of its habitat. You require regular and proper cleaning of chinchilla bedding to keep its habitat clean at all times.

The rate of absorbency is another factor to consider while choosing the chinchilla bedding. You can pick and order the chinchilla bedding which can absorb excess moisture, spilled water and urine to keep the habitat of this pet to be free from odours, bacteria and fungi. You can choose and buy the bedding which has the nature to reduce dust particles and odours to keep the habitat of the chinchilla clean on a regular basis.

Aspen is one of the best materials to choose and buy the chinchilla bedding appropriate for your pet. The bed made of this material is relatively cheap. However, this material can be very dusty and stick to anything in particular fiber. This is advisable to prefer the chinchilla bedding made of paper shavings. This material is lightweight and good for absorbency rate.  Chinchilla beds made of recycled paper give loads of benefits to pet owners who wish to provide the best bedding for their beloved pet animal.

Fulfil chinchilla bedding shopping expectations

The fabric material in the chinchilla bedding can be easily washed and reused. You can customize the chinchilla bedding when you choose the fabric material. You can get different benefits when you use a fabric in tandem with any commercial bedding. If you provide the clean and odor-free and best Chinchilla bedding for your chinchilla, then you can make your pet comfortable and healthy as you have expected. You can contact and discuss with experts in the chinchilla bedding at any time you wish to improve your proficiency for buying an appropriate chinchilla bedding. You will get exceptional benefits from the easy way to identify and order the suitable chinchilla bedding as per your requirements.

Living World Aspen Shavings is a popular chinchilla bedding option at this time. The main attractions of this product are hypoallergenic, very soft and keep the level of moisture required by chinchilla. This scent-free aspen wood is an important reason behind its popularity on the chinchilla bedding market. This product is designed to prevent skin infection and respiratory problems to the chinchillas. Carefresh complete pet bedding is made of recycled scratch wood material. You can focus on different bedding options in this category and buy one of these beddings.

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Zoonotic diseases and Rabies: Zoonotic diseases are those that can be transmitted between animals and people, with
rabies being a prime example. These zoonotic diseases are broken down into five major categories: viral, fungal,
bacterial, internal or external parasites. Zoonoses are spread from animals to humans via several routes. Direct
contact with the dog and sharing the dog’s environment are the two most common means of exposure to potential
disease. Infectious agents can be in the dog’s saliva, faeces, urine and on the dog’s skin and fur. Infectious organisms
can also be in fields, streams and parks shared for recreational purposes with the dog. Serious public health concerns
arise from this issue and dog bites result in significant numbers of hospitalizations each year while rabies and other
zoonoses establish reservoirs in uncontrolled stray dog populations. Due to its seriousness, rabies control has
overshadowed the other zoonoses transmitted by dogs; thus in many countries the health sector is focusing on this

Rabies is preventable through timely vaccination. However, once the disease occurs, death is inevitable. The primary
means of transmission is through a bite from an infected animal, as saliva carries large numbers of the viral agent.
Other less common means of transmission include infected saliva coming in contact with an open wound or
abrasion. There have been a few cases of Rabies being spread by the inhalation of aerosolized virus.

More than 1.4 billion people are at potential risk of rabies infection in South-East Asia (SEA) and each year there
are 23000 – 25000 human rabies deaths. Sri Lanka is a small island in the Indian Ocean, 66,000 Km2 in area, with a
population of almost 21 million. In Sri Lanka, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), between 1987
and 2007, with the total number of human fatalities reaching 2042, the country ranks number three in the region and
seven in the world in disease fatalities. In the year 1973 the country had the highest number of human rabies deaths
of 377 (20 per million population) and the lowest of 55 (3 per million population) in 2005. Rabies is currently
endemic in Sri Lanka. Of the human rabies deaths that occurred between 1992 and 2000, diagnosed clinically at
Medical Research Institute (MRI), 60% occurred in adults and 34% in children with a male to female ratio of 3:1.
The dog is the main reservoir for transmission of rabies to human, accounting for 96% of cases; cats account for 2%
and other animals for 2%.

Cost for rabies control: Rabies continues to be a major public health issue in Sri Lanka and the cost to the
Government for rabies treatment and management is very high. Immunization against rabies is a vital component in
reducing human and dog rabies cases. Currently the number of dog bites reported per day is 2000. The government
spends Rupees 500 million (about US$ 4.31 million) each year to treat dog bite victims at an average of Rs. 39,000
(about US $336.2) per person. Meanwhile, the government has allocated Rupees 200 million (about US$ 1.74
million) to the Health Ministry’s sterilization program to control the growth of dog population in Sri Lanka. 20,740
surgical sterilizations and 13,557 chemical sterilizations were carried out in the first half of 2011. This is a very
small percentage (approximately 1.3%) relative to the estimated dog population of 25 million (though accuracy is
uncertain). It should also be noted that a cumulative figure over several years, based on dog lifespan under local
conditions, should be considered; as surgical sterilization is permanent. Also for the purposes of population control
the percentage of female-dog sterilizations is the more pertinent figure. The Public Health Veterinary Services of
Health Ministry has carried out 955,953 dog vaccinations in 2010.

Controlling Rabies in Roaming Dogs: Since Rabies is a significant health hazard throughout most of the developing
world; countries use diverse strategies for its control and management. Until 2006 Sri Lanka had practiced
vaccination of owned dogs combined with mass culling of roaming dogs in order to control rabies. However, these
programs were unsuccessful in providing effective sustainable control of rabies. Now the government policy for
rabies control has shifted to sterilization and vaccination of both owned and roaming dogs.

BPT was granted honorary membership of the World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) in 2004.
Subsequent to the tsunami of December 2004, the fear of rabies outbreaks spread throughout the affected coastal
areas. BPT, in collaboration with WSPA, operated two mobile veterinary clinics to sterilize and vaccinate dogs in
these regions. Due to the success of this 2 year project, in 2007 WSPA invited BPT to carry out a 5 year dog
population management and rabies control program within the city of Colombo under the ICAM coalition


Vaccination by BPT of roaming dogs > 80 % of roaming dog population. – Photos

Sterilization of roaming female dogs > 70 % of roaming female dog population – Photos

Dog rabies cases from an average of 35 (1992-2007) to 10 at end of 2010 and 8 detected as at end 2011.

Education of school children and adults on bite prevention, rabies awareness and responsible dog ownership –

63102 primary school children (almost 90% of schools covered) – Photos

19836 secondary school children (35 schools) – Photos

4615 community members (42 programs) – Photos

Dog Managed Zones – 6 (2 hospitals, 1 school and 3 Government offices). An innovative program providing
tailored solutions to minimize conflict between the public and dogs in high risk public locations. – Photos

Reduction in number of lactating bitches and pups (from 25 % in 2007 to almost 0 % in 2011) – Photos

Training of CMC staff in humane dog handling, catching, and veterinary techniques
This project has been well accepted and received by the CMC and the local communities. Due to the success of this
project, WSPA is beginning to invest in the replication of this model to other locations in South East Asia. Delegates
from the ASEAN countries and Nepal have visited BPT with a view to replicating the Colombo City Project in their
own countries.

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To transport dogs one can use a vehicle with a trailer. During transportation, some aggressive dogs try to tear the
nets. These dogs could be given an intramuscular dose of Diazepam to calm them down.



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To succeed in dog catching, community involvement is essential as they are aware of the location of the dogs who
they feed. Therefore in the initial phase, the community liaison officer (CLO) should talk with the community and
gather information as to the whereabouts of the dogs. At the same time the CLO can identify persons willing to serve
as community caretakers for post operative supervision.

An ideal Dog catching team need a CLO and four dog catchers, but the number of dog catchers may need to be
increased when there are more difficult dogs to catch. To catch dogs in confined areas, at least three dog catchers are
needed. One dog catcher has to walk alongside the dog and then pass the dog. The other two dog catchers have to
remain on the other side of the dog. Catchers should observe the alertness of the dog. When the dog is looking at one
person, the other two should come closer to it and catch the dog, or else all three catchers should be ready to catch
the dog.

If the dog is in a passage, one catcher can chase the dog to the direction of the other two. Those two catchers should
stay one behind the other albeit to the side. Then if the first one misses the dog the other should be able to catch it.
If the dog is in an open area then catching can be very difficult. For those areas at least four catchers are needed. The
more the better. The dog has to be surrounded on all four sides. Make sure that there is not enough space between the
dog catchers for the dog to escape. In open areas one can catch dogs more easily if they are sleeping. If they are alert
and running here and there, they are very likely to escape. Therefore, attempting to catch these dogs is usually a
waste of effort. It may be appropriate to look for another opportunity to catch these dogs in a slightly different

After the dog is caught, the net should be twisted and tightened to prevent the dog from escaping.
The other important aspect in dog catching is to try to prevent the dog from screaming after being caught. If the dog
screams, other dogs in surrounding areas will run away. But in some situations there is an advantage in the dog
screaming. When one caught dog is screaming, sometimes other dogs come closer to investigate and at that time
those dogs can be caught as well. To prevent screaming, the eyes should be covered with the remaining twisted part
of the net. Dogs generally scream out of fear and by covering their eyes, it should reduce this fear to some extent.
Try to pet the dog to calm it down. An appropriate sedative may be required in some animals to calm them down.
Chasing after a dog is not very successful; because most dogs can run faster than us.

Dog Catching Team

Dog Catching Team

Dog Catching Team

Dog Catching Team

Dog Catching Team

Dog Catching Team

For friendly dogs, hand catching is possible. Try to pet the dog and give them a biscuit or something tasty if
available and then put them into nets or cages to transport to the surgery site. In hand catching we should be careful
not to be bitten by the dog. If a dog feels any kind of pain during catching it tries to bite. So one should be careful
and handle the dog gently. When there is a community person who can handle the dog advice him to assist with the
hand catching.



Hand catching

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BPT’s mobile veterinary clinic is of particular interest to veterinary students who have ample opportunity to practice
their skills under the guidance of a qualified veterinarian; especially due to the large scale of the project. It is a
hands-on experience and each student can learn and experience as much as he/she wants to. In this way knowledge
and skills will be shared and multiplied so that animal welfare can be improved throughout Sri Lanka and abroad.


Students can select both areas and either one catergory of training areas
Holistic approach of Rabies management project.
Surgery – Female OHE, Male castration, Cat male and female sterilization
Currently we do female sterlization only. But we can arrange cat and dog male sterilization for student training. We
can train 2 students at a time.




Most of the roaming dogs are friendly, but often do not like to be touched as there is no interaction with people other
than feeding. Therefore hand catching is not always successful and we have to catch them using special nets. This is
considered one of the most humane of the currently accepted methods of catching dogs.

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